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General Electronics

Douglas Krantz -- Fire Alarm Engineering Technician, Electronic Designer, Electronic Technician, Writer








What is an RS485 Communication Network? -- RS485 is a two wire data communication system where both wires are considered the carrier of the signals. As such, there is no ground/return. Two, three, four, up to dozens of devices ... Read More

Is Conduit Ground Good Enough for Electronics? -- The National Electrical Code (NEC) is concerned with fire safety and with electrical safety. The electronic technician is concerned with those issues, but the electronic technician is also concerned with signal transmission ...Read More

Does a Second Ground Rod Protect Circuits from Lightning? -- For lightning protection, is that second ground rod driven into the earth outside a building any earthly good?Read More

How Does One Connect RS232? -- So two pieces of equipment can send data to each other, RS232 carries the data. When connecting the equipment using RS232, there's guessing the RS232 is wired correctly, and then there's knowing ... Read More

How is a PCB with Mixed Lead Components Assembled? -- Long ago, before the Printed Circuit Board was invented, the original soldering technique consisted of hand soldering... Read More

What is an Arc Flash? -- Burning, blinded, deafened, an electrician is thrown across the room; having reached into a live electrical panel, all he did was to drop... Read More

What Makes an AC Solenoid Coil Overheat? -- Doing a fire alarm inspection, a technician saw a solenoid on a valve in the kitchen at a church. He removed... Read More

What Does E=IR Really Mean? -- If it isn't just a word, and it isn't really something to be memorized in order to pass a test, what do the letters in Ohm's Law really mean?... Read More

Wiring - Is It Power Limited or Non-Power Limited? -- It's the power supply, not the wiring, which determines whether it is a Class... Read More

What is a Flyback Diode? -- Someone Thinks the Flyback Diode is Important. Manufacturers all over the world spend good money installing these diodes, they must think they're ... Read More

Which Way Does Electricity Flow?-- So... In a wire, negatively charged electrons move, and positively charged atoms... Read More

What is an Induction or Switching Power Supply Transformer? -- In the United States they're called Flyback Transformers; in other countries they're called Line Output Transformers (LOPT). Even automobile ignition coils use... Read More









Douglas Krantz

Describing How It Works
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Articles

How Does Class A Fire Alarm Wiring Work?-- Fire alarm systems save lives and protect property. Fire alarm systems also break down because... Read More

Just What Is a Signaling Line Circuit (SLC)? -- The SLC (Signaling Line Circuit) is another way of saying Data and Power Circuit. Along with added power to run the sub-computers and their input and output circuits, it's a computer data-buss ... Read More

How is a Buffer Relay Wired Into a Door Holder Circuit? -- Like a door stop, a door holder keeps a fire door open. When smoke is detected, the door holder releases, allowing the door to shut. The door holder looks simple and innocuous enough... Read More

How Does One Find a Soft Ground Fault? -- Normally, we think of resistance like that of a resistor. The amount of resistance is built-in; no matter what voltage is used to drive the electrical... Read More

Can a Magnet Really be Used to Test a Smoke Detector? -- Smoke detectors usually have two ways of being tested. Smoke (smoke particles in the air, or some sort of canned smoke), and magnets (the activation of an internal magnetic... Read More



Electrical Flow


On this website, most references to electrical flow are to the movement of electrons.

Here, electron movement is generally used because it is the electrons that are actually moving. To explain the effects of magnetic forces, the movement of electrons is best.

Conventional current flow, positive charges that appear to be moving in the circuit, will be specified when it is used. The positive electrical forces are not actually moving -- as the electrons are coming and going on an atom, the electrical forces are just loosing or gaining strength. The forces appear to be moving from one atom to the next, but the percieved movement is actually just a result of electron movement. This perceived movement is traveling at a consistent speed, usually around two-thirds the speed of light. To explain the effects of electrostatic forces, the movement of positive charges (conventional current) is best.

See the explanation on which way electricity flows at www.douglaskrantz.com/
ElecElectricalFlow.html
.