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Fire Alarm -- Installation

Terminals at the end of a Class B Circuit where the installer had twisted the wires of the end-of-line resistor around the zone wire. On the right side, the twisted wire slid down before the screw was tightened but he installer didn't notice.
Photo Courtesy Integrated Fire & Security
The resistor wire was twisted around the zone wire. It slid down before the installer tightened the screw, but the installer didn't notice.
Douglas Krantz -- Fire Alarm Engineering Technician, Electronic Designer, Electronic Technician, Writer






Why Use Pigtails or a UL Approved End-of-Line Resistor?

By Douglas Krantz


Many times, a fire alarm system installer will put the leads of an end-of-line resistor (22 to 24 gage - very thin) under the same screw plate as the zone wire (16 to 18 gage wire - by comparison very thick).

Because both a thick and a thin wire are under the same screw plate, the plate, when screwed down on the wires, cannot press against both wires evenly. One wire is always looser, and the loose wire shows up later as a trouble on the panel.

To try to get around the problem, one method some fire alarm system installers use is to wrap the resistor wire around the zone wire. They then insert this twisted pair of wires under the screw plate. The screw plate does tighten down on both wires.

There are two issues with this approach, though.
  1. Even though the end of line resistor may still be connected to the zone wire, if the screw plate ever comes loose, the panel won't be in trouble but the device itself may not work. Besides being against NFPA Code, this is just plain bad practice for Class B wiring.

  2. The resistor wire itself might slide up the zone wire as it is inserted under the plate, not quite getting under the screw plate itself. (I've see this happen quite a few times.) When the installer is through wiring, the fire alarm system is normal. However, only the zone wire is tightened under the screw plate. Months or even years pass, and tarnish builds between the zone wire and the resistor wire. Eventually the electrical contact between the wires fails. When the panel goes into trouble (sometimes intermittently), the fire alarm service technician is going to have to troubleshoot to find and fix the problem.


Instead of trying to secure the thin resistor wire and the thick zone wire under the screw plate, use either a UL approved end-of-line resistor (it has spade connectors crimped to the wires), or make pigtails for the end-of-line resistor with the same thickness wire as the zone wire.

Using pigtails or a UL approved end-of-line resistor, the connection won't fail, and the system (at least for that problem) doesn't have to be serviced later.











PDF Book PDF of Make It Work - Conventional Fire Alarm Systems


Douglas Krantz

Describing How It Works
facpdoug@douglaskrantz.com

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Electrical Flow


On this website, most references to electrical flow are to the movement of electrons.

Here, electron movement is generally used because it is the electrons that are actually moving. To explain the effects of magnetic forces, the movement of electrons is best.

Conventional current flow, positive charges that appear to be moving in the circuit, will be specified when it is used. The positive electrical forces are not actually moving -- as the electrons are coming and going on an atom, the electrical forces are just loosing or gaining strength. The forces appear to be moving from one atom to the next, but the percieved movement is actually just a result of electron movement. This perceived movement is traveling at a consistent speed, usually around two-thirds the speed of light. To explain the effects of electrostatic forces, the movement of positive charges (conventional current) is best.

See the explanation on which way electricity flows at www.douglaskrantz.com/
ElecElectricalFlow.html
.